Bangladesh’s liberation had significant consequences beyond its own borders. It inaugurated in many ways the most significant paradigm shift in Indian foreign policy – one that persists in New Delhi to this day.
The 1960s was a tumultuous decade in India, marked by famines, wars, and the death of the country’s long-serving and charismatic first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. In the years that followed Nehru’s death, his daughter and eventual successor as prime minister, Indira Gandhi, decided that India had to change course – and the 1971 war proved to be her litmus test.
In the aftermath of the disastrous war with China in 1962, and the increased threat of a possible nexus between China and Pakistan, Prime Minister Gandhi sought to fulfil two objectives: first, to rebuild the Indian army’s morale, and second, to secure a strategic victory that would weaken the threat from Pakistan.
Soon enough, the opportunity came in the form of discontent among Bengali nationalists in East Pakistan, which soon blew up into an all-out war as the Pakistani army the tensions into violence.
In the run-up to the war, Gandhi overhauled one of Nehru’s most sacrosanct foreign policy tenets: non-alignment. In order to preempt the potential threat of America’s involvement on Pakistan’s behalf, the Indian prime minister signed a with the Soviet Union.
The strategic shift worked. Britain and America sent naval ships into the Bay of Bengal to deter India’s military actions, but the Soviet specter all but .
For New Delhi, the success of that experiment bore lessons that stay on to this day. Even as the Soviet Union dissolved and gave way to an era of American preeminence, India remained doggedly wedded to its defense and military ties with Moscow. For better or worse, the Nixon administration’s committed friendship with Pakistan continues to fester in India’s memory. Despite New Delhi’s increased cooperation with Washington in recent years to counter Chinese influence in the Indo-Pacific, India has striven to between its ties with the U.S. and Russia.India’s eventual balkanization under the weight of its diversity. But in 1971, it was the supposedly less diverse Muslim state of Pakistan that broke up. Bangladesh went on to a secular state.
Meanwhile, in Pakistan, feelings of vengeance simmered against India, as to “bleed India with a thousand cuts.” Under President Zia-ul-Haq, that policy was given further shape through more robust in Indian Kashmir and Punjab.
Just as significantly, in the aftermath of the loss in Bangladesh, Zia also set in motion a in Pakistan, seemingly in the hope that the most effective way to avoid a repeat of 1971 was to counter Pakistan’s still rich ethnic diversity with ever more Islam. In 1978, Zia announced that Islam would prevail over the country’s laws and constitution. The following year, courts begin to apply Shariah laws more enthusiastically.
Zia’s militant radicalism spawned years of violence and antagonism between India and Pakistan. In India, national security troubles on the border with Pakistan fed suspicion towards Muslims more generally and boosted the counter-movement of Hindu nationalism. Three years after Zia’s death – and not long after in Kashmir had driven out the Hindu and Sikh minority – Hindu nationalist militants a landmark mosque in the town of Ayodhya, which they said was built on the ruins of a temple to Lord Ram.
Today, those divisions run deeper than ever across the region. Bangladesh’s own commitment to secularism is from Islamist radicals – many of whom have from those who had sided with Islamabad during the 1971 war. In India, Kashmir has been of the autonomy that had been promised to its leaders more than 70 years ago. Hindu nationalism is India’s national identity in unprecedented ways and has with Bangladesh, where Islamist radicals are attacking the Hindu minority, apparently in retaliation.
When Bangladesh became a free secular state 50 years ago, South Asia seemed primed to move on from religious nationalism. But the tragedy in the region is that politics has all but gone in the opposite direction.